Berberine

$22.99

Keywords: Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress, Blood Sugar and Cholesterol, Anti-inflammatory

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Description

Keywords: Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress, Blood Sugar and Cholesterol, Anti-inflammatory

Berberine is an alkaloid (naturally occurring nitrogen containing compounds) found in several plants such as Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), Tree turmeric (Berberis aristate), Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), Yellowroot (Xanthorhiza simplicissima), Californian poppy (Eschscholzia californica), Chinese goldthread (Coptis chinensis) among others. For centuries Berberine has been used in traditional medicine across the globe; in Africa, Europe, Iran, India, China and by native Americans for different conditions (1, 2). The medical literature reports of berberine to have diverse biological actions, prominent amongst which are anti-inflammation (3), blood glucose and cholesterol support (4-8) and as an antioxidant (9, 10).

Berberine supports blood lipids by increasing the receptors of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the good cholesterol while decreasing the synthesis of triglycerides (TG) by the liver, resulting in an overall improvement in blood lipid profile (4-7). It supports healthy blood glucose regulation, in part through increased expression of insulin receptors (8) and stimulation of bile secretion (11, 12). Insulin works through IR to effect the actions of insulin including blood sugar control. Bile is important in digestion, nutrient absorption, fat metabolism and glucose control (13, 14). Berberine activates the all-important adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway (7). AMPK is the energy sensor of the cell and very important in metabolism as it activates the oxidation of fatty acids (fat burn) and glucose. Berberine’s beneficial metabolic effects, on glucose and cholesterol, are mediated partly through AMPK (15-17).

As an antioxidant, Berberine decreases oxidative stress (9, 10). Increased oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is common in cardiometabolic disorders (18-20). ROS are by-products of cellular metabolism. ROS levels could also be increased by regular environmental pollutants (21). Accumulation of ROS injures the cell, as it damages the building blocks of the cell; proteins, lipids as well as DNA and RNA (22). Not surprisingly, accumulation of ROS is reported to be an intensifier of the aging process (23, 24). ROS build-up damages the insulin secreting pancreatic beta cells, and also causes decreased sensitivity of the body to the action of insulin (Insulin Resistance) leading to high blood sugar (25, 26).

Thus, the supplanted 150IU of the natural antioxidant, d-alpha-tocopherol, the most active form of vitamin E in humans (27) to augment the effect of berberine, to support the elimination of excess ROS, thereby controlling oxidative stress.

References

1. Kunwar RM, Nepal BK, Kshhetri HB, Rai SK, Bussmann RW. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006;2:27.

2. Imanshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine. Phytother Res. 2008;22(8):999-1012.

3. Jeong HW, Hsu KC, Lee JW, Ham M, Huh JY, Shin HJ, et al. Berberine suppresses proinflammatory responses through AMPK activation in macrophages. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296(4):E955-64.

4. Kong W, Wei J, Abidi P, Lin M, Inaba S, Li C, et al. Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins. Nat Med. 2004;10(12):1344-51.

5. Doggrell SA. Berberine–a novel approach to cholesterol lowering. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2005;14(5):683-5.

6. Kong WJ, Wei J, Zuo ZY, Wang YM, Song DQ, You XF, et al. Combination of simvastatin with berberine improves the lipid-lowering efficacy. Metabolism. 2008;57(8):1029-37.

7. Kim WS, Lee YS, Cha SH, Jeong HW, Choe SS, Lee MR, et al. Berberine improves lipid dysregulation in obesity by controlling central and peripheral AMPK activity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296(4):E812-9.

8. Zhang H, Wei J, Xue R, Wu JD, Zhao W, Wang ZZ, et al. Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression. Metabolism. 2010;59(2):285-92.

9. Pongkittiphan V, Chavasiri W, Supabphol R. Antioxidant Effect of Berberine and its Phenolic Derivatives Against Human Fibrosarcoma Cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(13):5371-6.

10. Liu W, Liu P, Tao S, Deng Y, Li X, Lan T, et al. Berberine inhibits aldose reductase and oxidative stress in rat mesangial cells cultured under high glucose. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;475(2):128-34.

11. Sabir M, Bhide NK. Study of some pharmacological actions of berberine. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1971;15(3):111-32.

12. Guo Y, Zhang Y, Huang W, Selwyn FP, Klaassen CD. Dose-response effect of berberine on bile acid profile and gut microbiota in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16(1):394.

13. Sinal CJ, Tohkin M, Miyata M, Ward JM, Lambert G, Gonzalez FJ. Targeted disruption of the nuclear receptor FXR/BAR impairs bile acid and lipid homeostasis. Cell. 2000;102(6):731-44.

14. Chai J, Zou L, Li X, Han D, Wang S, Hu S, et al. Mechanism of bile acid-regulated glucose and lipid metabolism in duodenal-jejunal bypass. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8(12):15778-85.

15. Chang W, Zhang M, Li J, Meng Z, Wei S, Du H, et al. Berberine improves insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes via activation of 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Metabolism. 2013;62(8):1159-67.

16. Liu LZ, Cheung SC, Lan LL, Ho SK, Xu HX, Chan JC, et al. Berberine modulates insulin signaling transduction in insulin-resistant cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;317(1-2):148-53.

17. Lee KH, Lo HL, Tang WC, Hsiao HH, Yang PM. A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6394.

18. Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, et al. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2004;114(12):1752-61.

19. Alberici LC, Vercesi AE, Oliveira HC. Mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox responses to hypertriglyceridemia. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2011;43(1):19-23.

20. Rosen P, Nawroth PP, King G, Moller W, Tritschler HJ, Packer L. The role of oxidative stress in the onset and progression of diabetes and its complications: a summary of a Congress Series sponsored by UNESCO-MCBN, the American Diabetes Association and the German Diabetes Society. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2001;17(3):189-212.

21. Cross CE, Valacchi G, Schock B, Wilson M, Weber S, Eiserich J, et al. Environmental oxidant pollutant effects on biologic systems: a focus on micronutrient antioxidant-oxidant interactions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166(12 Pt 2):S44-50.

22. Sifuentes-Franco S, Pacheco-Moises FP, Rodriguez-Carrizalez AD, Miranda-Diaz AG. The Role of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Function, and Autophagy in Diabetic Polyneuropathy. J Diabetes Res. 2017;2017:1673081.

23. Davalli P, Mitic T, Caporali A, Lauriola A, D’Arca D. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:3565127.

24. Liochev SI. Reactive oxygen species and the free radical theory of aging. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;60:1-4.

25. Kajimoto Y, Kaneto H. Role of oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1011:168-76.

26. Tangvarasittichai S. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(3):456-80.

27. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional.

Product Information

Keywords : Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress, Blood Sugar and Cholesterol, Anti-inflammatory

Supplement Fact

Product Literature

Berberine is an alkaloid (naturally occurring nitrogen containing compounds) found in several plants such as Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), Tree turmeric (Berberis aristate), Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), Yellowroot (Xanthorhiza simplicissima), Californian poppy (Eschscholzia californica), Chinese goldthread (Coptis chinensis) among others. For centuries Berberine has been used in traditional medicine across the globe; in Africa, Europe, Iran, India, China and by native Americans for different conditions (1, 2). The medical literature reports of berberine to have diverse biological actions, prominent amongst which are anti-inflammation (3), blood glucose and cholesterol support (4-8) and as an antioxidant (9, 10).

Berberine supports blood lipids by increasing the receptors of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the good cholesterol while decreasing the synthesis of triglycerides (TG) by the liver, resulting in an overall improvement in blood lipid profile (4-7). It supports healthy blood glucose regulation, in part through increased expression of insulin receptors (8) and stimulation of bile secretion (11, 12). Insulin works through IR to effect the actions of insulin including blood sugar control. Bile is important in digestion, nutrient absorption, fat metabolism and glucose control (13, 14). Berberine activates the all-important adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway (7). AMPK is the energy sensor of the cell and very important in metabolism as it activates the oxidation of fatty acids (fat burn) and glucose. Berberine’s beneficial metabolic effects, on glucose and cholesterol, are mediated partly through AMPK (15-17).

As an antioxidant, Berberine decreases oxidative stress (9, 10). Increased oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is common in cardiometabolic disorders (18-20). ROS are by-products of cellular metabolism. ROS levels could also be increased by regular environmental pollutants (21). Accumulation of ROS injures the cell, as it damages the building blocks of the cell; proteins, lipids as well as DNA and RNA (22). Not surprisingly, accumulation of ROS is reported to be an intensifier of the aging process (23, 24). ROS build-up damages the insulin secreting pancreatic beta cells, and also causes decreased sensitivity of the body to the action of insulin (Insulin Resistance) leading to high blood sugar (25, 26).

Thus, the supplanted 150IU of the natural antioxidant, d-alpha-tocopherol, the most active form of vitamin E in humans (27) to augment the effect of berberine, to support the elimination of excess ROS, thereby controlling oxidative stress.

References

1. Kunwar RM, Nepal BK, Kshhetri HB, Rai SK, Bussmann RW. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006;2:27.

2. Imanshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine. Phytother Res. 2008;22(8):999-1012.

3. Jeong HW, Hsu KC, Lee JW, Ham M, Huh JY, Shin HJ, et al. Berberine suppresses proinflammatory responses through AMPK activation in macrophages. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296(4):E955-64.

4. Kong W, Wei J, Abidi P, Lin M, Inaba S, Li C, et al. Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins. Nat Med. 2004;10(12):1344-51.

5. Doggrell SA. Berberine–a novel approach to cholesterol lowering. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2005;14(5):683-5.

6. Kong WJ, Wei J, Zuo ZY, Wang YM, Song DQ, You XF, et al. Combination of simvastatin with berberine improves the lipid-lowering efficacy. Metabolism. 2008;57(8):1029-37.

7. Kim WS, Lee YS, Cha SH, Jeong HW, Choe SS, Lee MR, et al. Berberine improves lipid dysregulation in obesity by controlling central and peripheral AMPK activity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296(4):E812-9.

8. Zhang H, Wei J, Xue R, Wu JD, Zhao W, Wang ZZ, et al. Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression. Metabolism. 2010;59(2):285-92.

9. Pongkittiphan V, Chavasiri W, Supabphol R. Antioxidant Effect of Berberine and its Phenolic Derivatives Against Human Fibrosarcoma Cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(13):5371-6.

10. Liu W, Liu P, Tao S, Deng Y, Li X, Lan T, et al. Berberine inhibits aldose reductase and oxidative stress in rat mesangial cells cultured under high glucose. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;475(2):128-34.

11. Sabir M, Bhide NK. Study of some pharmacological actions of berberine. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1971;15(3):111-32.

12. Guo Y, Zhang Y, Huang W, Selwyn FP, Klaassen CD. Dose-response effect of berberine on bile acid profile and gut microbiota in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16(1):394.

13. Sinal CJ, Tohkin M, Miyata M, Ward JM, Lambert G, Gonzalez FJ. Targeted disruption of the nuclear receptor FXR/BAR impairs bile acid and lipid homeostasis. Cell. 2000;102(6):731-44.

14. Chai J, Zou L, Li X, Han D, Wang S, Hu S, et al. Mechanism of bile acid-regulated glucose and lipid metabolism in duodenal-jejunal bypass. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8(12):15778-85.

15. Chang W, Zhang M, Li J, Meng Z, Wei S, Du H, et al. Berberine improves insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes via activation of 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Metabolism. 2013;62(8):1159-67.

16. Liu LZ, Cheung SC, Lan LL, Ho SK, Xu HX, Chan JC, et al. Berberine modulates insulin signaling transduction in insulin-resistant cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;317(1-2):148-53.

17. Lee KH, Lo HL, Tang WC, Hsiao HH, Yang PM. A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6394.

18. Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, et al. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2004;114(12):1752-61.

19. Alberici LC, Vercesi AE, Oliveira HC. Mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox responses to hypertriglyceridemia. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2011;43(1):19-23.

20. Rosen P, Nawroth PP, King G, Moller W, Tritschler HJ, Packer L. The role of oxidative stress in the onset and progression of diabetes and its complications: a summary of a Congress Series sponsored by UNESCO-MCBN, the American Diabetes Association and the German Diabetes Society. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2001;17(3):189-212.

21. Cross CE, Valacchi G, Schock B, Wilson M, Weber S, Eiserich J, et al. Environmental oxidant pollutant effects on biologic systems: a focus on micronutrient antioxidant-oxidant interactions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166(12 Pt 2):S44-50.

22. Sifuentes-Franco S, Pacheco-Moises FP, Rodriguez-Carrizalez AD, Miranda-Diaz AG. The Role of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Function, and Autophagy in Diabetic Polyneuropathy. J Diabetes Res. 2017;2017:1673081.

23. Davalli P, Mitic T, Caporali A, Lauriola A, D’Arca D. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:3565127.

24. Liochev SI. Reactive oxygen species and the free radical theory of aging. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;60:1-4.

25. Kajimoto Y, Kaneto H. Role of oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1011:168-76.

26. Tangvarasittichai S. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(3):456-80.

27. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional.

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